Selasa, 12 Oktober 2010


U t a m i , B e k t i S u l i s t y a . f i l e . b i o l o g y . m a t r i c u l a t i o n . j h s
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Introduction Before we learn about biology, we have to know the basic terms in this materies. What is biology? Biology is the study of life -- life in all of its grandeur. From the very small algae to the very large elephant, life has a certain wonder about it. With that in mind, how do we know if something is living? Is a virus alive or dead? What are the characteristics of life? These are all very important questions with equally important answers. Basic Principles of Biology The foundation of biology as it exists today is based on five basic principles. They are the cell theory, gene theory, evolution, homeostasis, and laws of thermodynamics. Cell Theory : all living organisms are composed of cells. The cell is the basic unit of life. Gene Theory : traits are inherited through gene transmission. Genes are located on chromosomes and consist of DNA. Evolution : any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations. These changes may be small or large, noticeable or not so noticeable. Homeostasis : ability to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes. Thermodynamics : energy is constant and energy transformation is not completely efficient.
Subdiciplines of Biology The field of biology is very broad in scope and can be divided into several disciplines. In the most general sense, these disciplines are categorized based on the type of organism studied. For example, zoology deals with animal studies, botany deals with plant studies, and microbiology is the study of microorganisms. These fields of study can be broken down further into several specialized sub-disciplines. Some of which include anatomy, cell biology, genetics, and physiology
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OBJECT OBSERVATION AND WORK SAFETY We can to learn in the surrounding or environtment to get object of biology. We can use the Instrument to supporting observation.
A. Supporting instrument for observation
1. Supporting instrument in the field
Binocular camera
Digital camera
Thermometer kinds
pH meter kinds
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2. Supporting instrument in the laboratory
a. Using a microscope
Following are the steps to observe an object using a microscope
1. Raise the microscope tube
2. Start with the low power objectives lens, example 4x magnifications.
3. Adjust the reflector for shine into microscope
4. Placing object under objectives lens.
5. With the tube move up and down until you look object.
6. Move the slide in the side till get the object
7. Adjust the fine coarse in order to get cleaner object.
b. Method of calibration
This is example to make calibration on 150 times magnifications. Given : 1 scale on object micrometer = 0.01 mm = 10 μm 4 scale on ocular micrometer = 1 scale on object micrometer 1 scale on ocular micrometer = scale on object micromete = × 10 μm
= 2,5 μm
Dissecting kits
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Thus, 1 scale on ocular micrometer equals to 2,5 μm. You should remember that the result of the calibration is only valid to measure an object on 150 times magnification.
B. Observation object
1. Observation in nature
a. Observation in nature comprise of observing biotic and abiotic factors.
b. The biotic factors is animals, plants, fungi, and organisms.
c. Abiotic factors is air, temperature, light, acidity, altitude place, and humidity.
2. Observation in the laboratory
In the laboratory we can study an object more carefully by using microscope slide and preservation which have been made before.
a. Making microscope slide
b. Making preservation, and herbarium
C. Work safety in the laboratory
We have to carefully if we get the work on the laboratory, this is avoid any possible accidents that may happen in the laboratory. To avoid the accident on laboratory, this is a warning!
1. Instrument treatment method
We can use the instrument with safe is we know the material this instrument. Following the instrument in the laboratory :
a. Optical instrument, such loupes and microscope
b. Chemical substance
c. Electric appliances and other supporting appliances
d. Media (like torso, picture or photo about biology, preserve, and herbarium)
2. Equipment on the laboratory
a. Work safety on the laboratory needs recognize the characteristics of the laboratory instrument and materials.
b. The equipment for to safe in the lab such as laboratory coat, mask, gloves, and fire extinguister, and the kit safety laboratory.
3. Treat hazardous substances method
Any action to use the some substance for to safety on the laboratory, there are :
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a. Biological substance hazardous : microorganism, experimental animal, toxic plant,
b. Chemical substance hazardous : toxic chemical, explosive chemical, corrosive and irritatif chemicals, vaporable and flammable chemicals, carcinogenic chemicals, radioactive chemicals.
4. Symbol in the laboratory
Question! 1. Explain please : a. histology b. ornitology 2. Mention steps for using microscope ! 3. Write down steps in making preserve(wet slide) ! 4. Draw five symbols usually found in a laboratory, and explain the function!
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BIODIVERSITY Why? We can differentiate organism from non living thing? Example, is a dry seed or viruses particle living or non living? To answer such question, biologist use characterstic of living things or organism. We can to calasification this is organism or non living thing from the characteristic, so we can differentiate organism from non living things ones because have their characteristic of life.
A. Characteristics of organism
As mentioned earlier, organism have characteristics of life, are as follows :
1. Respiration :
a. is the process of gas excahanging between an organism and surroundings the purpose of which is obtain energy. Aerobic
b. Respiration is divided two
2. Show irritability:
a. is the ability on organism to respond to a stimuli in order to adapt itself to changes of the environment.
b. Example : Mimosa pudica
3. Move :
a. According to biological concept, moving is not determined by change of position. Accordingly,
plants also have the ability to move
b. Animal get to move with the every body and change from the
c. Plants only involves some of its organs, that
move very slowly, and it
causes no change the position
4. Need food :
a. Plants obtain their food by roducing food by themselves through photosynesis process.
b. Animals get their from the producen or plants.
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5. Growth and development :
a. Growth is related to the increase
of cell number and size
b. Development is associated with
maturity of the organs of the body.
6. Excretion :
a. The waste mater result of organism is can’t to use again in the body
b. Waste material such as a water, salt, toxic ad nitrogen.
7. Reproduction :
a. The purpose of reproduction organism is to retain or
continue their existence to prevent extinction.
b. Reproduction can make place asexually and sexually.
B. Life Organization
1. Cell :
a. Every organism is built of basic unit called cells.
b. Every animal and plants cell has a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and cell nucleus.
c. In a plants cell, there are also cell wall, vacuola, and commonly chloroplast.
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
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2. Tissue
Cells of the some structure and function unite form tissue. Some of the tissue :
And from the human and animal have the four kinds of main tissues, this is
a. Epythel tissue
The tissues that covers and limit the surface outside or inside the body. This is the simple sylindris epyhthelium.
b. Supporting tissue
The function from the side tissue is giving strength, support and protection to the weak part of the body.
The tissue of plant which the function to transportation schlerenkym and colencym
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c. Muscullus tissue
The tissue make the body can move by contraction.
d. Nerve tissue
The tissue can receive and transfer simuly from or to brain.
3. Organs
A group of several tissues form an organ. Organ has comlex structure with the specific function. Part of plant and the function
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4. Organ system
In a complex organism, several organs work together to do a function or important tas. Those organ make an organ system.
Organ system in human body
5. Organism
Some organ can to the work form organism.
C. Classification of organism
Based on the similarities having by creatures, nature variation can be classified based on the human needs. Through the classification, nature variation can be clssified into three, these are animals, tress, and microbia.
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The classification that is used to classify the cretures done cased on the specific rules. As the the example many kinds of classification based on the datas bellow:
1. Grouping of trees based on it’s functiuon:
a. Wood producer : jati, mahoni
b. calmer : akasia, beringin
c. Food producer : rice, gandum, corn, sagu.
d. Sugar producer : tebu, bit.
e. vagetables : sawi, wortel, tomato.
2. Grouping of animals based on it’s function:
a. Trasportation : cow, horse, camell.
b. meal producer : ship, chiken, cow.
c. eggs producer : chiken, duck.
d. Milk production : cow, ship, horse
e. Livestock production : chiken, dog, cat.
3. Grouping of Microbia based on it’s function:
a. Food processor : Autobacter Xylium (nata de coco), Lactibacilus bulgaricus (yoghurt), Penicillium cammemberti (chesee).
b. Fermentation agent : Saccarimicess cerevisiae (tapai, beer, cake), Rhyzopus Oryzae (tempe), Apergillus oryzae (sake).
c. Antibiotic producer : Streptomycess gryceus, Penicillium notatum.
1) The classification used for grouping the biodiversity as the human needs. The classification of biodiversity also can be done based on it’s act., for example there are some advantege animals and unadvantage animal, the advantage trees and unadvantage, also patogen and apatogen microbia.
2) By, using the diferent basic of classification, biodiversity will be easier to find, understanding, and used in the human life.
3) The group of organisms found from the result of classification is called taxon. The taxon formation is regulary graded. Each taxon level is given a certain name.
U t a m i , B e k t i S u l i s t y a . f i l e . b i o l o g y . m a t r i c u l a t i o n . j h s
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Kingdom/Regnum : Plantae/plants Kingdom : animalia
Divisio : Sphenophyta Filum : Chordata
Class : Equisetiinae Kelas : Mammalia
Order : Equisetales Ordo : Carnivora
Family : Equisetaceae Familia : Felidae
Genus : Equisetum Genus : Felis
Species : Equisetum debile Species : Felis tigris
The classification levels from the higgest level (kingdom) untill the lowest level (species) are as follows. a. Kingdom/Regnum. Kingdom is usually used for animals while regnum is uses for plants. b. Phylum/Divisio. Phylum is usually used for animals while divisio is used for plants. c. Classis d. Ordo e. Familia f. Genus g. Species The naming of species is known as binomial nomenclature that is name giving with two names system. This system was developed by Carolus Linnaeus. For example Oryza sativa (rice plant) and Felis tigris (Indian tiger)
Identification is done to find the kind or group identity of organisms. To simplify identification key. Determination of an organism, then experts compose a key called determination key The example : Determination,s Keys of Invertebrata animals in Garden 1. a. Animal with a soft body without feet to (2) b. Animal with a tight body with feet to (4) 2. a. Long body which built of many segments worm b.Unsegmented body to (3) 3. a. Body with a cutting outside snail
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b. Body with a cutting inside and formed like a sadel bare snail 4. a. Body with more than 14 pair of feet to (5) b. Body with less than 14 pair of feet to (6) 5. a. Flat body, yellow to brown, a couple of feet in every space cantipede b. Silindre body (glig), two couples of feet in every spaces Keluwing 6. a. 7 couples of feet, blue to grey of body wood kutu b. Less that 7 couples of feet to (7) 7. a. 4 couples of feet to (8) b. 3 couples of feet insects 8. a. The body is devided into two parts spider b. The body is not devided into two parts, the feet are long like hair anggang-anggang ( java) Key determination snail is : 1a, 2b
1. What do you know about aerobic respiration? Explain !
2. What do you know about asexual reproduction? Explain!
3. Explain why does the function of a human bpdy organ influences the other organ!
4. How is the standart of writing the scientific name of an organism?
5. Please, make the key determination organism until eight characteristic !
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Ecosystem Life things environments are everything in outer part of life things that become a condition or terms organism for life. So that, life things and its environment become one thing that can’t to separate each other because one another mutual influence. Each a group of life things usually live in a certain place that called habitat. The organisms and the environment of life can’t be separated each other. Every group of living organisms stays in certain place to live. This place is called habitat. A. Components of Ecosystem Ecosystem is formed by two main components, namely :
1. Abiotic environments:
Abiotic environments cover abiotic component that form everything that indirect interrelated in the existence certain organism. Abiotic component also form physic and chemical component that forms abiotic environment as life thing place. Abiotic component divided into: a. Air Air important for all of life things. Air that evaporate in the soil will evaporated through soil pores, while in the water, air will be dissolve. b. Temperature Temperature is quantitative measurement for hot or cold. This temperature explains the heat of a thing, but that is not same with number of calories that contain in that thing. Temperature also influences living thing proliferation. For example, some kind of bird do migration to a place that has fit temperature for proliferate. c. Humidity
Air humidity means water contents that contains in the air. Air humidity is very important because air humidity surface of human body, animal body, and plant body.
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If the air humidity low, then the water evaporated from organism to be high, so organism will be dehydration. d. Wind Wind is very influential to evaporated and morphology of creatures (specially plants). Wind influence to plants evaporating influential backwards humidity influence. When the wind blow fast and fast, then evaporating process in plants will be fast and fast
e. Water OH2
Water is a chemical compound that very famous and some of water be in the earth. Water always move, evaporate from surface earth, then back to land again as rain and flow to low place, that is sea. That movement we call a water cycle.
f. Soil Soil is a growing media and place to live for creatures. Human, animals, and plants which live in soil have very high dependence to soil g. Acidity(pH) Acidity also influential to creatures. Creature need environment that have pH neutral h. Minerals and micro elements There’re mineral salt consist of nitrogen ions, phosphate, sulphur, calcium, and sodium. Character of soil and water certain by composition of certain mineral salt. i. Lights
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Lights are one energy that have source from sun radiation. Sun light consist some of long wave. Kind of long wave, lights intensity, and time to light sun shine have a role in organism life. 2. Biotic Environment Biotic environment of organism are arranged by the other entire organism that arranging relationship with it. So, this certain organism there will especially relationship that influence really dissemination and the number of it. Based of their niches, organisms divided into 4 groups, namely :
a. Producer
b. Consumer Kinds of heterotrophic creatures are: 1). Primer Consumers, are animals that consume plants directly (herbivore), for examples goat, deer, cow, etc. 2). Secondary Consumers, are organism that consume herbivore, called primer carnivore, for examples tiger, lion, dog, etc.
3). Tersier Consumers, are organism that consume primer carnivore and also as carnivore, called secondary carnivore. Primer and Secondary carnivores also called predator, because those animals
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catch and prey others animals. For examples, cats are predator for mice, and snakes are predator for frogs. 4). Omnivores, are consumer of everything (plants and animals), for example, humans. There also omnivore that seasonal, for example at the fruits season, hyena will consume fruits, but after that time already passed ,the hyena will return to consume rabbit. If the primer consumers switch with tropic level, it will be second tropic, secondary consumers will be third tropic, while tersier consumers will be fourth tropic, and so on. The last consumers can be top carnivores. c. Decomposer
Decomposers are microorganism that be benefit to decompose other living thing’s bodies that death, or called decompositions. While
For examples, the results of decomposed of leaves will be compost that rich of nutrients that useful for the plants. d. Detritivore B. Interaction between Living Organisms with Its Environment
1. Interaction between Individuals Competition of birds to get food
Competition between members of a species ("intraspecific") is the driving force behind evolution and natural selection; the competition for resources such as food, water, territory, and sunlight results in the ultimate survival and dominance of the variation of the species best suited for survival.
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2. Interaction between Populations a. Neutralism
The relationship that not disturb one another organism in the same habitat that not advantageous one another and not harm both of organism is called Neutral. For example, dragonfly and cow.
b. Predation
Predation is the relationship between predator and the prey. This is a close relation, because without the prey, predator can’t be alive. c. Symbiosis
Symbiosis means live together between two different species. The symbiotic relationship may be categorized as being mutualistic, parasitic, or commensal in nature.
 Mutualism
Mutualism is the relationship between two different species of organism that advantageous both of them. For example, honey bee and the flower
Anemone hermit crab Butterfly and flowers
 Commensalism
Commensalism is the relationship between two different species of organism in together lives form to get resources of food, either of the species is got the advantages, and another species is not harmed.
For example, the shark and remore
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Remora and shark Fish and sea plant
 Parasitism
Parasitism describe as the relationship between different species of organism, if either of organism lived in another organism and takes the food from the host, so it has harm property.
Parasitic symbioses take many forms, from endoparasites that live within the host's body, to ectoparasites that live on its surface.
Leaf worms and leaves Bug and leaf
3. Interaction among Biotic and Abiotic Component Interaction of Biotic and Abiotic components form ecosystem. The relationship among organism with their environment strung out flow of energy in that system. Besides that, in the ecosystem there are also structure or tropic level, biotic diversity, and materials cycle. B. Types of Ecosystem Community and it’s a biotic environment made ecosystem. In generally there are three kind of ecosystem, water ecosystem (aquatic), land ecosystem (terrestrial) and produce ecosystem.
1. Aquatic Ecosystem
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Aquatic ecosystem can be ecosystem of water insipid or ocean ecosystem. Example ecosystems of water insipid are river, pond, lake, swamp of water insipid and swamp of turf. Example ocean ecosystems are forest mangrove, brackish swamp, estuary, sand of beach, stone of beach, shallow ocean, and deep ocean. a. Fresh Water Ecosystem
Fresh water lotic ecosystem
b. Marine Ecosystem
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c. Coral Reef Ecosystem
coral reef ecosystem 2. Land ecosystem Land ecosystem is ecosystem which their physic environment form the continent. Based position (diagonal line) land ecosystem divided into some biome, such as:
Tropical rain forest
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savana Meadow
meadow Desert
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Fall Forest
tundra 3. Artificial Ecosystem
Artificial ecosystem is ecosystem which created by human to fulfill his needs. The example of artificial ekosistem are dam, production plant forest like teak tree and pine tree, agroecosystem (field farm), plantation and also ecosystem of settlement like ecosystem in the city and village. C. Food Chain
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 Herbivorous food chain
Example : grass  rabbit  snake eagle
 Detrital Food Chain
Example : leaf trash  earthworms white starlings  hawks Food Web
D. Energy Flow Energy flow happen in the food chain. During the process of transfer energy, reduction of energy is always occur when it through a tropic level. Energy can be various form, like mechanics energy, chemical energy, electricity and so on. The changing form from one type of energy to the other type called transformation of energy.
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During the flow energy occur in food chain, flow of matter is also happen, that is matter which arrange body of organism. Matter in the form of elements contained in the chemical compound which it is a base of living matter and unloving matter. Thereby , cycle of elements from biotic to abiotic is happen. Input and saving energy in ecosystem is called as ecosystem productivity. Ecosystem productivity divide into 2, they are :
1. Primary Productivity
2. Secondary Productivity
Ecology Pyramid Trophic structure of the ecosystem can be presented in the form of ecological pyramid. There are 3 types of ecological pyramid, the number of pyramid, biomass pyramid, and the pyramid of energy.
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Biomass Pyramid
Energy Pyramid
Biogeochemical cycle is a circuit or pathway by which a chemical element or molecule moves through both biotic ("bio-") and abiotic ("geo-") compartments of an ecosystem. In effect,
Biomass Pyramid
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the element is recycled, although in some such cycles there may be places (called "sinks") where the element is accumulates for a long period of time. Some examples of these chemical elements are H2O, P, S, N2, O2 and C. All of them operate on a closed system, which means that these chemicals are recycled.
1. What will happen if there is no producer in a ecosystem ?
2. What is the definition of abiotic component in one ecosystem ?
3. Why in the some place have the diversity organism ? Explain!
4. What the some factors that cause rarity and extinction of an organism? Explain!
Good Luck !!!

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